"Marketers are deliberately choosing tools that are more measurable [than social], that they have more experience with and that have a more obvious direct-response value. And they're still trying to get to the place where they can measure how social media is going to pay off for them," Ms. VanBoskirk said. Conversely email marketing is considered more measurable than social and "the workhorse of most marketers' toolkits," she added, but is so cheap that "it is never going to be the lion's share of a budget."
Public relations comes in two forms: positive PR and reputation management. Earning media exposure with public relations requires a technique called “Positive PR.”